Euscelis incisus (Cicadellidae, Deltocephalinae), a natural vector of 16SrIII-B phytoplasma causing multiple inflorescence disease of Cirsium arvense
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We investigated multiple inflorescence disease of Cirsium arvense (CMI) and its association with phytoplasmas of the 16SrIII-B subgroup, potential natural vector(s) and reservoir plant(s). From five locations in northern Serbia, 27 plants of C. arvense, 1 C. vulgare and 3 Carduus acanthoides with symptoms of multiple inflorescences (MIs) were collected and tested for 16SrIII group phytoplasmas. All symptomatic plants were found to be infected. Tentative reservoir plants and insect vectors were collected at a Dobanovci site where the continuous presence of CMI disease was recorded. Among the 19 most abundant plant species submitted to phytoplasma testing, all symptomless, the presence of the 16SrIII group was detected only in two legumes: Lathyrus tuberosus (2/5) and L. aphaca (1/5). Among 19 insect species from six families of Auchenorrhyncha, the deltocephalid leafhopper Euscelis incisus was the only insect carrying a 16SrIII phytoplasma (10% of analysed individuals). Transmission tri...als were performed with naturally infected E. incisus adults of the summer generation and with a laboratory population reared on red clover. After an acquisition period of 48 h on C. arvense symptomatic for MIs and a latent period of 28 days, 83% of the E. incisus adults (300/360) were infected with CMI phytoplasma. In two transmission tests, the leafhoppers successfully transmitted the phytoplasma to exposed plants (C. arvense and periwinkle), proving its role as a natural vector. Test plants of C. arvense infected with the 16SrIII-B phytoplasma expressed typical symptoms similar to those observed in the field, such as MIs or the absence of flowering, shortened internodes and plant desiccation. Typical symptoms in infected periwinkles were virescence and phyllody. The molecular characterisation of the CMI phytoplasma isolates from diseased and asymptomatic field-collected plants, vectors, and test plants was performed by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA, rpl22-rps3 and rpl15-secY genes. Phylogenetic analyses of other members of the 16SrIII group of phytoplasmas indicated closest relatedness with clover yellow edge phytoplasma (CYE) of the 16SrIII-B subgroup.
Keywords:'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' / creeping thistle / Euscelis incisus / phytoplasma transmission / phytoplasma vector / reservoir plants
Source:Annals of Applied Biology, 2015, 167, 3, 406-419
- Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken