Characterization of Gnomoniopsis idaeicola, the Causal Agent of Canker and Wilting of Blackberry in Serbia
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Blackberry cane diseases with the symptoms of necrosis, canker, and wilting are caused by several fungi worldwide. Surveys conducted from 2013 to 2016 in Serbia revealed the occurrence of Gnomoniopsis idaeicola, the causal agent of cane canker and wilting, which was found to be distributed in almost half of the surveyed orchards, in three blackberry cultivars, and with disease incidence of up to 80%. Wide distribution and high disease incidence suggest that G. idaeicola has been present in Serbia for some time. Out of 427 samples, a total of 65 G. idaeicola isolates were obtained (isolation rate of 34.19%). Reference isolates, originating from different localities, were conventionally and molecularly identified and characterized. G. idaeicola was detected in single and mixed infections with fungi from genera Paraconiothyrium, Colletotrichum, Diaporthe, Botryosphaeria, Botrytis, Septoria, Neofusicoccum, and Discostroma, and no diagnostically specific symptoms could be related directly t...o the G. idaeicola infection. In orchards solely infected with G. idaeicola, blackberry plant mortality was up to 40%, and yield loses were estimated at 50%. G. idaeicola isolates included in this study demonstrated intraspecies diversity in morphological, biological, pathogenic, and molecular features, which indicates that population in Serbia may be of different origin. This is the first record of a massive outbreak of G. idaeicola infection, illustrating its capability of harmful influence on blackberry production. This study represents the initial step in studying G. idaeicola as a new blackberry pathogen in Serbia, aiming at developing efficient control measures.
Source:Plant Disease, 2019, 103, 2, 249-258
- Amer Phytopathological Soc, St Paul